Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin with the parasitic 'itch mite' Sarcoptes scabiei. The tiny mite burrows into the upper layers of the skin causing intensely itchy lesions which commonly become infected with bacteria. In humans, scabies is a particularly significant disease in children, but occurs in both sexes, at all ages, in all ethnic groups, and at all socioeconomic levels. Transmission of the mites from one person to the next is by direct skin to skin contact.
Scabies is a significant disease worldwide in humans, wildlife, livestock and domestic animals and is a particularly serious problem in many remote Australia Indigenous communities, where overcrowded living conditions are a major factor contributing to high rates of transmission.
Our research focus:
- To conduct community based treatment projects aimed at reducing the prevalence of skin infections
- To build capacity in local community workers in recognising and treating skin infections and in research methods
- To monitor for and investigate the molecular mechanisms of emerging drug resistance in scabies mites
- To investigate how scabies mites live and survive in the skin. Proteins which may be essential for mite survival could be targets for the design of alternative treatments for scabies
- To investigate how the infested person’s immune system responds to the scabies mites, and why some people’s immune systems react differently to the mites, resulting in severe infestation known as crusted scabies.
Our research impact:
- We have conducted a comprehensive Healthy Skin program in the East Arnhem region. This included annual mass community scabies treatment days and routine screening and treatment of other skin infections.
- We have conducted a treatment trial for scabies and strongyloidiasis in which 1300 adults and children from Galiwin’ku community participated. Following training, some community members acted as researchers on the project, describing the project to other community members in Yolngu language and performing skin screening, blood taking and treatment administration.
- We are building capacity in community based researchers with 15 community members completing a Certificate II in Child Health Research, six completed a blood taking course and three obtained a medication skills-assist qualification. With the help of the Red Cross, we also organised first aid training with 60 community members receiving first aid certificates.
- We use an established laboratory test to determine the sensitivity of scabies mites collected from scabies patients, to current treatments. This enables us to assess the likely effectiveness of treatments used for individual crusted scabies patients, as well as monitor for the emergence of drug resistance in scabies mites.
- Queensland Institute of Medical Research, University of the Sunshine Coast
- Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne
- University of Florida, USA.
- Phase II, randomized, double-blind, parallel group dose finding study of single oral doses of moxidectin in adults with scabies.
- A randomised controlled trial of alternative treatments to intramuscular penicillin for impetigo in Aboriginal children
- Beating scabies and strongyloides in Galiwin’ku
- East Arnhem healthy skin project.
- Mounsey, K., Kearns, T., Rampton, M., Llewellyn, S., King, M., Holt, D., et al. (2014). Use of dried blood spots to define antibody response to the Strongyloides stercoralis recombinant antigen NIE. Acta Tropica, 138, 78-82. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.07.007
- Kearns, T., Clucas, D., Connors, C., Currie, B.J., Carapetis, J.R. & Andrews, R.M. (2013). Clinic attendances during the first 12 months of life for Aboriginal children in five remote communities of northern Australia. PLoS One, 8(3), e85231.
- Holt, D.C. & Fischer K. (2013). Novel insights into an old disease: recent developments in scabies mite biology. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 26(2), 110-115.
- Holt, D.C., Burgess, S.T.G., Reynolds, S.L., Mahmood,,W. & Fischer, K. (2013). Intestinal proteases of free-living and parasitic astigmatid mites. Cell and Tissue Research, 351(2), 339-352.
- Fischer, K., Holt, D., Currie, B. & Kemp, D. (2012). Scabies: important clinical consequences explained by new molecular studies. Advances in Parasitology, 79, 339-73.
- McMeniman, E., Holden, L., Kearns, T., Clucas, D.B., Carapetis, J.R., Currie, B.J., et al. (2011). Skin disease in the first two years of life in Aboriginal children in East Arnhem Land. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 52(4), 270-273.
A new trial has started in Darwin to see whether the drug Moxidectin can be used to treat scabies in a single dose.
Researchers are making progress in developing a single tablet to eliminate scabies. It is being trialed in the Northern Territory by a team from Menzies.
NT News report on the HOT NORTH One Disease Skin Symposium attend by Australia's first Indigenous dermatologist Larrakia woman Dr Dana Slape
This week Larrakia woman, Dr Dana Slape, Australia's first Aboriginal dermatologist, is back home to country to attend a Skin Health Symposium
Menzies School of Health Research (Menzies), findings show there has been inaccurate reporting of resistance to the recommended antibiotic, trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim).
A northern Australian research team has provided reassuring support for the continued use of an oral treatment option for patients with skin infections, finding that there has been inaccurate reporting of resistance to the recommended antibiotic.
The Scabies Research Team, from Murdoch Childrens Research Institute; the Kirby Institute; St Vincent's Hospital Sydney; and Menzies School of Health Research, wins the 2017 Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre Eureka Prize for Infectious Diseases Research.
In a world-first study, treatment of a whole community with oral ivermectin has been shown to virtually eliminate scabies, providing new hope in the fight to control this debilitating disease.
A NT-based research project investigating alternative and more practical treatments for skin sores is set to benefit the millions of children worldwide who suffer from this infection.
Researcher Therese Kearns tests a new treatment for mite and worm infections.
The Menzies School of Health Research is hoping the drug Ivermectin will rid the Echo Island community, east of Darwin, of scabies and the strongyloides worm.