• To understanding the role of contaminants in regards to the urine albumin-creatine ratio (UACR). 
  • Examine the association between UACR and chemical evidence of cellular “contamination” of the urine using both concurrent controls and within individual paired urine sample results.

The measurement of the UACR is a cornerstone of screening for markers of kidney damage (and ultimately in the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease) in the Northern Territory. 

It has been widely assumed that bacteriuria (asymptomatic or symptomatic) or “contamination” of the urine with cellular debris leads to urinary albumin elevation. Evidence for this is very sparse.

An observational retrospective cohort study of deidentified data about individual patients who have provided urine samples tested for both UACR and urine dipstick to Western Diagnostic Pathology between 1st January 2002 and 31st December 2012 inclusive.

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