• To determine whether early commencement of a sequential schedule of two new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) at one, two, four, and six months (two doses of pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine, PHiD-CV, and two doses of 13-valent PCV, 13PCV) gives greater protection against otitis media (OM) than three doses of PHiD-CV or 13PCV alone.
  • To determine if a combination of pneumococcal vaccines is superior to single vaccines in terms of immunogenicity, nasopharyngeal carriage of otitis media pathogens, and all-cause otitis media in Indigenous infants living in remote communities.

In Indigenous infants living in remote communities, the immune response, nasopharyngeal carriage of pathogens, and otitis media will be measured in response to:

  1. a combination 3+1 schedule (PHiD-CV at 1,2 and 4 months of age and PCV13 at six months of age). (COMBO group).
  2. PHiD-CV at two, four and six months (licensed in 2009)
  3. 13PCV at two, four and six months (expected to be licensed in 2010).
Chief investigators:
  • Associate Professor Amanda Leach
  • Professor Edward Mulholland
  • Professor Mathu Santosham
  • Associate Professor Paul Torzillo
  • Associate Professor Ngiare Brown
  • Professor Peter McIntyre.